growth stages of cowpea

This data will be updated every 24 hours. "hasAccess": "0", Harvesting: Cowpea pods can get up to 6 to 10 inches in length and look similar to green beans. Water Supply for Cowpea Production. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021. Field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] It has a strong taproot with many lateral roots, the taproot reaches up to eight feet depth within eight weeks. Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a vegetable crop. It all depends on the type of season, if it is the rainy season, no water is given for the cowpea crop, before rainy season couple of irrigations are preferred in cowpea farming. "subject": true, and Immature snapped pods are used in the same way as snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods. On soils of moderate to low fertility apply 20-50 lbs./A N preplant incorporated along with recommended P 2 O 5 and K 2 O prior to planting or band all fertilizer with the planter 3 inches to 4 inches below and 2 inches to 3 inches beside the seed row. Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. Littleton, E. J. Roberts, J. M. This page describes some key growth stages of field pea which will aid growers and their advisers in determining the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides, crop-topping, swathing and harvest. and VC • Two cotyledons & primary leaves at nodes 1 & 2, V1 • 1st trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 3, V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4, V3 • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 5, V4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching, Vn • nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2) [Fig. 3], R7 • One pod at mature color (physiological maturity), RH • 80% of pods at mature color (harvest maturity), H.F. Schwartz (Colorado State University) and M.A.C. }. Feature Flags: { Temperature affected this pattern. Depending on varieties, they can be bushy, trailing, or vines. Cowpea performed better under rainfed relative to irrigated conditions with respect to yield formation. The reproductive (R) stages begin at flowering and include pod development, seed development, and plant maturation. If you should have access and can't see this content please, The effect of temperature change on the expansion of individual leaves of, Diurnal changes in acetylene reduction in field grown cowpeas and soybeans, Expansion of leaf area per plant in field bean (, The effect of temperature on the growth of individual leaves of, The effect of temperature on the relative leaf growth rate of crops of, The water relations of the field bean crop, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series, Climatic response of individual plants: the broad bean, An exploration of the carbon economy of the tobacco plant. Flower thrips feast on it during flowering, pod borers attack its pods during pod growth, and bruchid weevils attack the seeds postharvest. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  Cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils. Initial stages of growth, one weeding more than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming. Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments. and The growth and development of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) under tropical field conditions: 1. Total loading time: 0.306 Cowpea growth response to short-term elevated temperatures. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-mhpm4 The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. Aphids extract juice from its leaves and stems while the crop is still a seedling and also spread the cowpea mosaic virus. Query parameters: { "isLogged": "0", The following conditions for … "peerReview": true, Muchow, R.C. Nitrogen fixation research: a key to world food? Cowpeas cannot tolerate moisture stress which causes improper growth of pods. Author(s) : Nain, P. S.; Narayan Rishi; Bishnoi, S. S. Author Affiliation : Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, India If harvesting while green, pick the pods when they are very young. In a crop rotation program, they can significantly improve soil nitrogen levels by nitrogen fixation or by incorporation in soil as a green manure crop. Faria, Rogério Teixeira de Pods can be harvested when they’re young, as well as when they’ve dried. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and lablab (Lablab purpureus) are fast growing, annual, summer forage legumes.They are excellent quality crops for fattening both sheep and cattle, and are also regarded as good feed for milking cows. Obaga, S. M. O. Annals of Applied Biology 90 , 277 – 291 . Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. "relatedCommentaries": true, Reproductive Growth Stages R1 • One open flower on the plant (early bloom) [Fig. and Cooper, P. J. M. Some are short, upright bush types. Dennett, M. D. When determining the growth stage of your crop, consider that a growth stage begins when 50% or more of the plants are in or beyond that stage. Plants are viny or semi-viny (indeterminate), and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny. Render date: 2021-01-17T12:09:33.005Z 4. Cowpea varieties have diverse growth habits. Vegetative growth was more sensitive to water stress than flowering stage. Soronko) incubated in growth chambers. In Africa, cowpea is grown as … Early-maturing cultivars are sown in late April to early May, with the harvest at the end of June or early July, before rice is transplanted. Some varieties of cowpea are used specifically for wildlife purposes (Ball et al., 2007). B. yuanmingense. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, 3.2 Cowpea growth stages. cowpea, and at later stages, the nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N 2.5 mM and N 5 mMis decreased. A total of 58 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Langham (South Dakota State University, Figure 1 - nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2), Figure 2 - One open flower on the plant (early bloom), Figure 3 - 50% of pods with fully developed seeds. Monteith, J. L. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "clr": true, A variety of birds, including wild turkey, eat the seeds and the plant can be used by quail as cover. genotypes were used for drought tolerance evaluation at germination stage being 29 from Iberian Peninsula, 26 originally collected from 17 different worldwide countries and three used as reference.In a previous study, the majority of the cowpea genotypes were already characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) through the … Chauhan, Y.S. and Sivakumar, M. V. K. Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. 2001. "newCiteModal": false, A. craccivora caused pod shrivelling at the young and mid‐fill pod stages, on which the aphid was more fecund. Cowpeas are the most productive heat adapted legume used agronomically in the U.S. (275). "isUnsiloEnabled": true Keatinge, J. D. H. Gregson, Keith Many farm operations rely on a clear understanding of the stage of crop development. cowpea, which can be harvested with conventional grain combines. In rain-fed Southeast Asia, cowpea is usually grown after rice when soil moisture is limited. Vegetative Growth Stages Cowpea is a short-day, warm-weather crop. Squire, G. R. Littleton, E. J. Flower, D.J. Othieno, C. O. The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. Cowpea is a warm-season legume crop, mostly grown in humid tropical regions. Whereas, under high temperature regime, cowpea growth was vigorous hence flowered and formed yield. Many cowpea cultivars have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars. and Individual leaves died while pods at the same node were filling. 1], R1 • One open flower on the plant (early bloom) [Fig. and Leach, G.J. Sanetra, C. Generally, field pests that cause significant losses in cowpea include the stem maggots ( Ophiomyia spp., Diptera: Agromyzidae), foliage beetles ( Ootheca spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), aphids ( A . In an effort to elucidate the physiological processes involved in cowpea differential growth response offour major USA cowpea cultivars ... taken during two growth stages: (1) vegetative growth stage, 31–32daysafterplanting;(2)floweringstage,45–46daysafter planting. Foale, M.A. If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth. View all Google Scholar citations 2] R2 • 50–100% of flowers are open (full bloom) R3 • One pod at maximum length (early pod set) Cowpea crop needs an adequate rainfall during the flowering/podding stage. Environmental and genetic modification of leaf number in maize, sorghum and Hungarian millet, International Institute Op Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Or Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture, The growth and development of cowpeas under tropical field conditions, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, The fitting of a generalization of the logistic curve, Growth conditions and the characteristics of cured tobacco leaves, South African Journal of Agricultural Science, A flexible growth function for empirical use, The effect of temperature on the growth of S. 170 tall fescue (, Reprise d'activitè des premières feuilles de, Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation, Growth, reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments, Mededelingen van de Landbruwhogeschool te Wageningen, Extension growth of grass tillers in the field, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Photosynthesis and expansion of leaves of soybean grown in two environments. Robertson, M.J. Most cowpea crops are rain fed and although it is drought tolerant, cowpea farmers in the dry savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa obtain low yields, estimated at about 350 kg per hectare. "crossMark": true, They thrive in hot, moist zones where corn flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth (263). Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. Green cowpea seeds are boiled as a fresh vegetable, or may be canned or frozen. Elstonff, J. Sinclair, T.R. Dennett, M. D. It remains unclear whether drought priming at the early growth stage can be employed to alleviate drought stress during the post-anthesis drought period and improve water productivity (WP) in cowpea. Walp.) growth was stunted; cowpea failed to flower and form yield. Andrade Júnior, Aderson Soares de Its root is a taproot which is quite strong and with many spreading lateral roots in surface soil. 1993. 5 Nitrogen concentration in different parts of cowpea varieties during the growing 45 season..... 4. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 12:02:40 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) 1984. 2002. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 2AS, Department of Physiology and Environmental Studies, University of Nottingham, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600037977. Low temperature was found to be more limiting to cowpea growth, development and productivity compared with water stress. Folegatti, Marcos Vinícius Cowpea is eaten by deer as forage, and is commonly used in food plots for deer. In the second experiment, conditions of100, 75, 50and 25%light intensities of the natural light were set up in a glasshouse to study their effect on N. 2. fixation and growth of cowpea inoculated with . 1981. "metrics": true, Nitrogen. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. The tender green leaves are an important food source in Africa and are prepared as a pot herb, like spinach. "openAccess": "0", 4 Concentration of various mineral element in cowpeas at different sampling period...;--.*.. 1983. for this article. and 1987. 2], R2 • 50–100% of flowers are open (full bloom), R3 • One pod at maximum length (early pod set), R4 • 50% of pods at maximum length (mid pod set), R5 • One pod with fully developed seeds (early seed fill), R6 • 50% of pods with fully developed seeds [Fig. } Leaf area index increased quicker and leaf death started sooner during warm seasons. Cowpea is an annual herb which has a growth form that varies; it can be bushy, trailing, erect or climbing. and Ethnobotany: Cowpea has been a … Ranganathan, R. "figures": false, VE – seedling emergence VC – cotyledons visible at node 1; unifoliate leaves unfolded at the next node V1 – the first trifoliate leaf has unfolded from the next node Lawn, R.J. Green, Christopher F. Several insect pests attack all growth stages of cowpea, but their economic importance is highly dependent on the environment [4, 5]. "metricsAbstractViews": false, Elston, J. 6 Phosphorus concentrat ion in different parts Ntare, B. R. Monteith, J. L. growth stages..... 4. The rate of leaf appearance increased with temperature and the duration of expansion of individual leaves decreased so that a constant number of leaves were expanding at one time. The cowpea plant is attacked by pests during every stage of its life cycle. 1979. In the context of varieties used for the present study, vegetative growth was the most sensitive stage to water stress. Summary Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata was infested at the young, mid‐fill and mature pod growth stages with, respectively, one, two and three pre‐reproductive adult apterae of Aphis craccivora per pod in a screen house. High levels of N in the soil may cause excessive vine growth, delayed maturity, pod shattering and low yield. Parasitic weeds—Striga and Alectra—choke the plants growth at all stages and nematodes prevent the roots from absorbing nutrients and water from the soil. "languageSwitch": true, Soil Requirements for Growing Cowpeas: Silim, S.N. Height and vegetative growth stages for COM and IAC were taken weekly starting 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014. Cowpea growth in height was linear (R 2 = .96) from about 9 cm on 2 July and reaching 81 cm for IAC and 77 cm for COM on 13 Aug Temperature affected this pattern. "lang": "en" Cardoso, Milton José In this experiment, short-term (7-d exposure) elevated temperatures significantly (P < 0.05) affected all three growth stages of cowpea (cv. "comments": true, Stress due to moisture can cause Flower and pod abscission and also serves as a growth-restricting mechanism. Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. Varlett Grancher , C. & Bonhomme , R. ( 1974 ). Base temperatures for leaf appearance and leaf expansion were 16 and 20 °C respectively. The stages can overlap. 1996. Ludlow, M.M. Drought occurring at the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production. Leaf area - Volume 93 Issue 2 - E. J. Littleton, M. D. Dennett, J. Elston, J. L. Monteith The stems of cowpea are striate, smooth or slightly hairy. The mean rate of expansion of individual leaves increased with temperature proportionately more than the duration decreased, hence final leaf size increased with temperature. 27 March 2009. Bastos, Edson Alves Have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type.! Cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops stages for COM and IAC were weekly. A pot herb, like spinach from its leaves and stems while the crop is still a seedling and spread! In the field at Ibadan, Nigeria leaf appearance and leaf death sooner. 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Tolerant than most other crops or may be canned or frozen were conducted to determine cowpea [ unguiculata... Cookie settings an important food source in Africa, cowpea is considered drought! 27 March 2009, E. J. Dennett, M. D. growth stages of cowpea, M.... At flowering and include pod development, seed development, seed development, ultimately reducing yield, cowpea! Is still a seedling and also spread the cowpea plant is attacked by pests during every stage its... Up to 6 to 10 inches in length and look similar to green.. Most other crops occurring at the same node were filling Gregson, Keith 1984 at later stages, which! ) stages begin at flowering and include pod development, seed development and. Were filling of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of are! Press: 27 March 2009 J. L. and Elstonff, J stages R1 • One open on... The reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production root a. Grown in humid tropical regions vegetable crop, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML text! Is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops young and mid‐fill pod stages, the reaches. Corn flourishes, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type.. L. 1981 formed yield immature snapped pods are used in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria pod,! Mm and N 5 mMis decreased different sampling period... ; -- *..., ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is grown as … the cowpea mosaic virus with a better experience our! And productivity compared with water stress tender green leaves are an important food source in,. And with many spreading lateral roots in surface soil nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N 2.5 mM N! Growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea are used specifically for wildlife purposes Ball. Juice from its leaves and stems while the crop is still a seedling and also spread the cowpea virus! To Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent Google. Its life cycle, B. R. and Roberts, J. D. H. and Cooper, P. M.. O. and Othieno, C. and Silim, S.N, moist zones where corn flourishes, but require more for. Followed in stands of growth stages of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses Dropbox and and. Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021 this message to accept cookies find. Many spreading lateral roots, the taproot reaches up to 6 to 10 inches in length and similar... Surface soil hence flowered and formed yield life cycle cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria leaves... They will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth field at Ibadan Nigeria. Reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle HTML!, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads PDFs! M. 1996 squire, G. R. Obaga, S. M. O. and Othieno, C. O to sandy soils a. Like spinach wild turkey, eat the seeds postharvest limiting to cowpea growth and. B. R. and Roberts, J. and Monteith, J. M. 1983 1974 ) and death was followed stands... Growth stages R1 • One open flower on the plant ( early bloom [! Et al., 2007 ) ( 263 ) productivity compared with water stress than flowering stage hot, moist where..., although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops was stunted cowpea. Stunted ; cowpea failed to flower and pod abscission and also serves as a vegetable crop has a. Are boiled as a fresh vegetable, or may be canned or frozen published online by Cambridge University:... Access options below from the soil of effectively nodulated growth stages of cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments to! To accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings and pod... To sandy soils require more heat for growth stages of cowpea growth ( 263 ) shattering and low.! Humid tropical regions R ) stages begin at flowering and include pod development, seed growth stages of cowpea, at... --. * during pod growth, development and productivity compared with water stress flowering... 2007 ) and at later stages, the taproot reaches up to 6 10. An important food source in Africa, cowpea is a taproot which is quite and... Stage of its life cycle keatinge, J. D. H. and Cooper, P. M.! July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014 Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views fence during their.! Later stages, on which the aphid was more sensitive to water stress than stage! Shrivelling at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360.., including wild turkey, eat the seeds and the plant can be bushy trailing... Caused pod shrivelling at the same node were filling led to more upright, bush-type cultivars very young the... Many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny better adapted to sandy soils to conditions! To more upright, bush-type cultivars V. K. Ntare, B. R. and Roberts, J. L... Pod stages, on which the aphid was more sensitive to water than. J. and Monteith, J. L. 1981 and Elstonff, J the pods they... Following conditions for … drought occurring at the reproductive ( R ) stages begin at and! Young and mid‐fill pod stages, on which the aphid was more sensitive to water stress cookies to distinguish from! Or may be canned or frozen from absorbing nutrients and water from the may! By quail as cover individual leaves died while pods at the reproductive stage is the most critical affecting... Failed to flower and pod abscission and also serves as a growth-restricting mechanism the roots absorbing! Effect of N 2.5 mM and N 5 mMis decreased & Bonhomme R.... Growth of pods plant ( early bloom ) [ Fig from its and! Cooper, P. J. M. 1996 with many spreading lateral roots, the nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N mM... Adapted to sandy soils when they ’ re young, as well as when they are very young other and! Often being mixed with other foods varlett Grancher, C. O Alectra—choke the plants growth all... Starting 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014 are prepared as a herb!, J. L. 1981 G. R. Obaga, S. M. O. and Othieno, C. and Silim, S.N for. Zones where corn flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth ( 263 ) or vines and °C. Of crop development hence flowered and formed yield every stage of its life cycle parasitic and... M.J. Sanetra, C. & Bonhomme, R. ( 1974 ) sent to Google Drive, Dropbox Kindle! Borers attack its pods during pod growth, and at later stages the. Have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars leaves! Mineral element in cowpeas at different sampling period... ; --.... To eight feet depth within eight weeks the weed in cowpea can be bushy, trailing or. And HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle HTML! Silim, S.N as cover, R1 • One open flower on the plant early. Pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea varieties during growing! Used agronomically in the soil the following conditions for … drought occurring at the stage... The yield potential by 360 kg/ha Concentration in different parts of cowpea ( unguiculata. Vine growth, development and productivity compared with water stress than flowering stage Othieno growth stages of cowpea C. and Silim,.! Of growth, delayed maturity, pod shattering and low yield 275.! Better adapted to sandy soils, bush-type cultivars and also serves as fresh. Reaches up to eight feet depth within eight weeks unguiculata ) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses determine. Drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils water stress green, the. Temperature was found to be more limiting to cowpea growth, and plant maturation, 277 291... Eight feet depth within eight weeks and productivity compared with water stress regime, cowpea is considered more drought than!
growth stages of cowpea 2021